The book was reviewed by Professor Kevin MacDonald of California State University–Long Beach, with special emphasis on the Jewish role in Communism.
Yuri Slezkine's book The Jewish Century, which appeared last year to rapturous reviews, is an intellectual tour de force, alternately muddled and brilliant, courageous and apologetic. Slezkine's greatest accomplishment is to set the historical record straight on the importance of Jews in the Bolshevik Revolution and its aftermath. He summarizes previously available data and extends our understanding of the Jewish role in revolutionary movements before 1917 and of Soviet society thereafter. His book provides a fascinating chronicle of the Jewish rise to elite status in all areas of Soviet society—culture, the universities, professional occupations, the media, and government. Indeed, the book is also probably the best, most up-to-date account of Jewish economic and cultural pre-eminence in Europe (and America) that we have.And "Stalin's willing executioners" were in large part responsible for the deaths of millions at the hands of the Communist police state, which many Jews seemed to view as "payback" for pogroms and other acts of anti-Semitism that have followed certain elements of Jewry around for centuries across continents and time.
The once-common view that the Bolshevik Revolution was a Jewish revolution and that the Soviet Union was initially dominated by Jews has now been largely eliminated from modern academic historiography...
Although in the decades immediately before the Russian Revolution Jews had already made enormous advances in social and economic status, a major contribution of Slezkine's book is to document that Communism was, indeed, "good for the Jews." After the Revolution, there was active elimination of any remnants of the older order and their descendants. Anti-Semitism was outlawed. Jews benefited from "antibourgeois" quotas in educational institutions and other forms of discrimination against the middle class and aristocratic elements of the old regime, which could have competed with the Jews. While all other nationalities, including Jews, were allowed and encouraged to keep their ethnic identities, the revolution maintained an anti-majoritarian attitude...
Jews were leaders of the movement and to a great extent they were its public face.
Their presence was particularly notable at the top levels of the Cheka and OGPU (two successive acronyms for the secret police). Here Slezkine provides statistics on Jewish overrepresentation in these organizations, especially in supervisory roles, and quotes historian Leonard Shapiro's comment that "anyone who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the Cheka stood a very good chance of finding himself confronted with and possibly shot by a Jewish investigator."
During the 1930s, Slezkine reports, the secret police, now known as the NKVD, "was one of the most Jewish of all Soviet institutions", with 42 of the 111 top officials being Jewish. At this time 12 of the 20 NKVD directorates were headed by ethnic Jews, including those in charge of State Security, Police, Labor Camps, and Resettlement (deportation).
The Gulag was headed by ethnic Jews from its beginning in 1930 until the end of 1938, a period that encompasses the worst excesses of the Great Terror.
They were, in Slezkine's remarkable phrase, "Stalin's willing executioners"...
Here's Wikipedia's summary from The Black Book of Communism of the millions persecuted and murdered by Leninism, Stalinism, and Jewish Bolshevism starting in the immediate wake of the 1917 Communist coup in Russia:
-the executions of tens of thousands of hostages and prisoners, and the murder of hundreds of thousands of rebellious workers and peasants from 1918 to 1922 (See also: Red Terror)Of course, reports of the mass murder and genocide being carried out in the Soviet Union sent shockwaves of fear and loathing radiating across Europe -- particularly fear and loathing of the Trotskyite brand of International Communism and "permanent revolution" advocated by early Soviet and Jewish Bolshevik hero Leon Trotsky, commissar of the Red Army who had butchered millions across Russia. (Trotksy, who eventually broke with Stalin and would later openly embrace Zionism, remains to this day not only a metaphor for international Jewish Bolshevism and Marxist Zionism, but for Trotskyite neoconservatism as well, given that the founding fathers of neoconservatism were Trotskyite Jews who themselves became (or always were) hard-core Zionists, and who simply switched out Communist economic models for State Capitalist ones).
-the Russian famine of 1921, which caused the death of 5 million people
-the extermination and deportation of the Don Cossacks in 1920
-the murder of tens of thousands in concentration camps in the period between 1918 and 1930
-the Great Purge which killed almost 690,000 people
-the deportation of 2 million so-called "kulaks" from 1930 to 1932
-the deaths of 4 million Ukrainians (Holodomor) and 2 million others during the famine of 1932 and 1933
-the deportations of Poles, Ukrainians, Moldavians and people from the Baltic Republics from 1939 to 1941 and from 1944 to 1945
-the deportation of the Volga Germans in 1941
-the deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1943
-the deportation of the Chechens in 1944
-the deportation of the Ingush in 1944. (see also Population transfer in the Soviet Union)
The anti-Nazi website Nazism.net summarizes how the fear and loathing of mass murderous Communism played a huge role in the rise of fascist movements across Europe:
Nazism and Communism emerged as two serious contenders for power in Germany after the First World War, particularly as the Weimar Republic became increasingly unstable.Given the huge role that Jewish Bolshevism played in Soviet mass murder, it is little surprise, then, that Jewish leftists and agitators, and later, Jewry in general, became targets in Europe in the decades between World War One and World War Two, particularly given that Jews played such a decisive role in the financing and leadership of Communist mass movements there, just as they did in Russia -- likely with the same murderous designs for the European masses that were afflicted by the Jewish and Communist Party elites upon the Russian people.
What became the Nazi movement arose out of resistance to the Bolshevik-inspired insurgencies that occurred in Germany in the aftermath of the First World War. The Russian Revolution of 1917 caused a great deal of excitement and interest in the Leninist version of Marxism and caused many socialists to adopt revolutionary principles. The 1918-1919 Munich Soviet and the 1919 Spartacist uprising in Berlin were both manifestations of this. The Freikorps, a loosely organised paramilitary group (essentially a militia of former World War I soldiers) were used to crush both these uprising and many leaders of the Freikorps, including Ernst Röhm, later became leaders in the Nazi party.
Capitalists and conservatives in Germany feared that a takeover by the Communists was inevitable and did not trust the democratic parties of the Weimar Republic to be able to resist a communist revolution. Increasing numbers of capitalists began looking to the nationalist movements as a bulwark against Bolshevism. After Mussolini's fascists took power in Italy in 1922, fascism presented itself as a realistic option for opposing "Communism", particularly given Mussolini's success in crushing the Communist and anarchist movements which had destabilised Italy with a wave of strikes and factory occupations after the First World War. Fascist parties formed in numerous European countries.
Many historians such as Ian Kershaw and Joachim Fest argue that Hitler and the Nazis were one of numerous nationalist and increasingly fascistic groups that existed in Germany and contended for leadership of the anti-Communist movement and, eventually, of the German state. Further, they assert that fascism and its German variant National Socialism became the successful challengers to Communism because they were able to both appeal to the establishment as a bulwark against Bolshevism and appeal to the working class base, particularly the growing underclass of unemployed and unemployable and growingly impoverished middle class elements who were becoming declassed (the lumpenproletariat). The Nazi's use of socialist rhetoric appealed to disaffection with capitalism while presenting a political and economic model that divested "socialism" of any elements which were dangerous to capitalism, such as the concept of class struggle, "the dictatorship of the proletariat" or worker control of the means of production.
Various right-wing politicians and political parties in Europe welcomed the rise of fascism and the Nazis out of an intense aversion towards Communism. According to them, Hitler was the savior of Western civilization and of capitalism against Bolshevism. Among these supporters in the 1920s and early 1930s was the Conservative Party in Britain. During the later 1930s and 1940s, the Nazis were supported by the Falange movement in Spain, and by political and military figures who would form the government of Vichy France. A Legion of French Volunteers against Bolshevism (LVF) and other anti-Soviet fighting formations, were formed.
As Benjamin Ginsberg wrote in his 1993 book The Fatal Embrace: Jews and the State:
In pre-World War I Germany, for example, Jews were extremely important in the Socialist party. The SPD was founded by a Jew, Ferdinand Lasalle, and Jews, including such individuals as Eduard Bernstein and Otto Landsberg, were among the party's most prominent parliamentary leaders. In addition, the party's leading journalists were Jews as were its most notable theorists - Bernstein, Adolf Braun, and Simon Katzenstein; its leading expert on municipal administration was a Jew, as was its expert on electoral law and its chief youth organizer, Ludwig Frank.And again, as MacDonald noted in his review of Slezkine's book:
Socialists dominated the provisional government established in Germany in the immediate aftermath of World War I. Two of this government's six cabinet members, Otto Landsberg and Hugo Haase, were Jews. Other Jewish Socialists also played important roles during this period. Kurt Eisner was prime minister of Bavaria in 1918-1919. Georg Gradnauer was prime minister of Saxony from 1919 to 1921. In Prussia, Paul Hirsch served as prime minister from 1918 to 1920 and Kurt Rosenfeld as minister of justice in 1918. As noted earlier, Hugo Preuss formulated the Weimar constitution and served as minister of the interior. After the creation of the Weimar Republic, Jews continued to play important roles in the leadership of the SPD. About 10% of the party's Reichstag deputies were Jews, including Rudolph Hilferding, who was minister of finance in 1923 and from 1928 to 1930.
Among the most vehement opponents of the Socialist provisional government was the German Communist party, whose leadership also included a number of Jews. In 1919, under the direction of party chief Paul Levi, the KPD staged a revolt against the Socialist provisional government. One of the most prominent leaders of this revolt was Rosa Luxemburg, who was later captured and murdered by rightist paramilitary forces. Jews were also among the leaders of the Communist government that the KPD briefly established in Bavaria after the murder of Kurt Eisner. Eugen Levine was head of the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic, Gustav Landauer was its commissar for propaganda and cultural affairs, and Ernst Toller commanded its "red army." This regime was crushed in May 1919 by free corps forces.
Jews were also important in Socialist and Communist movements in a number of other nations including Britain, France, the United States, and most of the nations of East Central Europe. In Hungary, for example, Jews were prominent in the prewar Socialist movement and in the "Galileo Circle," the center of Budapest student radicalism. The Hungarian Communist government established by Bela Kun in 1919 was dominated by Jews. Twenty of the regime's twenty-six ministers and vice-ministers were of Jewish origin. This government was overthrown after one hundred days by French-backed Rumanian forces.
The once-common view that the Bolshevik Revolution was a Jewish revolution and that the Soviet Union was initially dominated by Jews has now been largely eliminated from modern academic historiography.And so has the huge Jewish presence in the European Communism and radical socialist movements that paralleled Communist and Jewish Bolshevik atrocities in Soviet Russia.
This Orwellian, memory hole-like scrubbing of history has been systematically accomplished by leftists, Zionists, State Capitalists and neocons in order to wash the blood off of their own hands, preserve their moral authority, and to scapegoat Christianity, conservatism, and the "intolerance" for Jewry of traditional Western civilization for the rise of Nazism and the Holocaust, and deflect attention from the far more relevant and resonant facts of political Judaism's role in Communist mass murder, genocide and theft that led to the fear and loathing that facilitated the rise of fascism.
In short, leftist, Zionist and neocon elements whitewashed their own history and then exploited the Holocaust to discredit the entire old Western order and replace it with their own ideologies.
And of course, ignoring the fact that there likely never would have been a Holocaust but for the Soviet genocides perpetrated by Communists and Jewish Bolsheviks who set state-organized mass murder and terror precedents, the Holocaust has been repeatedly used by left-liberals, Zionists and neocons as a rationale for the creation, maintenance and one-sided, nearly blank-check U.S. support of Israel, and as a sub-text rationale for the current U.S. wars in the Middle East, which not coincidentally have been largely instigated and engineered by the Israel lobby and Jewish Zionist neocons and neoliberals.
American liberal internationalists, neoliberals, and neocons have run rampant with this new Zionist order coalition concept, that they're all supposedly representative of "tolerance," and are righteous "victims" entitled by historical crucible and suffering to rule the West -- concepts that they have additionally exploited to justify their wars of aggression against Islamic civilization.
The entire sordid history and the current militaristic, warmongering state of affairs perfectly illustrates the dangers of sweeping inconvenient historical truths and realities under the carpet in favor of opportunistic political maneuvering, and out of deference to self-serving, cynical political operatives, racketeering syndicalists, and authoritarian and totalitarian centralizers.
The narrative that the Jewish Bolshevik/Stalinist-perpetrated Communist holocaust in the Soviet Union had nothing to do with the Nazi-perpetrated holocaust in Germany and occupied territory is a dangerous lie that must be corrected and set straight not only in the name of historical truth, but to prevent the poisonous elements that created it from digging America deeper and deeper into the Mideast bog, and who ultimately seek yet another world war in order to ratchet their anti-Western, totalitarian Big Brother/Leviathan racket ever tighter.
Never forget: There were two holocausts in the 20th Century, not one, and the first one led to the second.
And Zionist machinations, intrigue and Trojan horse ideologies, fueled by ambition, greed, lust for power, and messianic delusions of grandeur and supremacy, led to both.